Macular Hole, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

Macula is a small and tiny region located at the centre of the retina. When the light rays fall on the retina, the signals are passed on to the brain and the signals are then interpreted as the picture you get to see. The macula is a very important part of the eye since it is responsible for the concentrating eye sight you all have. Various activities which requires a good vision such as reading, sewing or identifying objects or faces is done with the help of the Macula. A small tear in the Macula creates Macular Hole. It is part of the natural ageing process due to which the Macular breaks in the middle.


The eye is never empty or hollow. The space inside the eye is covered by a thick transparent liquid known as Vitreous gel. This gel is made up of 99 % water and 1 % of the substance which allows it to take the vitreous shape. This gel is present right in front of the Macula. With ageing, the vitreous gel begins to shrivel and starts splitting from the Macula. Mostly, there is no harm caused in this process. But, the gel which sticks to the Macula does not get pulled away due to which the tissue of Macula stretches thus leading to its tear gradually in a week’s time. This is how a Macular Hole is formed.

This disorder is most associated with natural ageing process and is found to be occurring amongst people aged above 60. Other uncommon reasons for its occurrence are eye injuries or elongated swelling of the Macula.

Signs & Symptoms

There are no clear signs or symptoms of the existence or occurrence of this disorder in the initial stages. The central vision starts to become unclear and hazy. As the hole starts getting bigger, the blind spot begins to develop in the central vision path thus damaging your ability to see things which are both distant and near. Usually Macular Hole is seen to be diagnosed only in one eye. It is not very common to see both the eyes getting diagnosed with this disorder.


The diagnosis of this disorder is conducted by an eye specialist. The ophthalmologist will conduct the examination in a certain format. Firstly he or she will dilate your pupil and then check the retina. For most eye specialists, recommend a test known as fluorescein angiography. A specific dye is used in this kind of test to light up region around retina.

Optical coherence tomography, also known as OCT is conducted which helps in accurate and perfect diagnosis of the disorder. A specific laser camera is used to diagnose Macular Hole through this process. It has been designed in such a way that it can easily measure the thickness of the retina and also scan for any swellings in the region.


The best and the most highly preferred treatment for treating Macular Hole is through a type of surgery. This surgery is known as Vitrectomy Surgery.


There are no preventive measures as such which are known for avoiding the occurrence of such disorders.

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